英语代词用法的15个方面(很详细)

时间:2020-04-08 编辑:佚名 手机版

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1. 人称代词的语法要点

(1) 人称代词的基本用法:人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格有I, you, he, she, it, we, they等,它们在句中作主语用,宾格有me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them等,它们在句中作动词或介词的宾语。

(2) 人称代词的排序:有两个或两个以上的人称代词并列时,一般是这样排序的:单数按2—3—1;复数按1—2—3。但在承认错误时,就将I放在最前面了。如:

You, he, and I are good friends. 你我他都是好朋友。

We, you and they have been invited to the party. 你们我们和他们都被邀请参加那个晚会。

(3)人称代词后接名词用作同位语:有时人称代词后可接人称代词用作同位语。如:

We girls often go to the movies together. 我们女孩子经常一起去看电影。

He asked you boys to be quiet. 他要你们男孩子安静些。

2. 物主代词的语法要点

物主代词有形容词性和名词性两种,形容词性物主代词my, your, his, her, its, our, their只在名词前作定语,名词性物主代词mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs不能作定语,但可作主语、宾语、表语或与of连用作后置定语。如:

Yours seems bigger than mine. 你的似乎要比我的大些。

My pronunciation is poor. His is even worse. 我的语音不好,他的更差。

3. 反身代词的语法要点

(1) 反身代词的基本用法:反身代词有myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves等。它们在句子中主要用作宾语或同位语。如:

I don’t blame you; I blame myself. 我不怪你,我怪我自己。

Don’t trouble to come over yourself. 你不必费神亲自来了。

(2) 反身代词用作表语:反身代词在be, feel, look, seem等系动词后作表语,表示身体或精神状态处于正常。如:

I don’t know what’s the matter with me. I’m not myself today. 我不知道怎么啦。今天我感觉不舒服。

4. 指示代词的语法要点

(1) 指示代词的基本用法:指示代词包括this, that, these, those等,它们在句中既可用作代词,也可用作形容词。一般说来,this, these表“近指”,,而that, those则“远指”。

(2) 指示代词指上文还是指下文:指上文提到的事多用that,有时用this,指下文的事只能用this。如:

—He was nearly drowned once.

—When was ______?

—_____was in 1998 when he was in middle school.

A. that; It B. this; This C. this; It D. that; This

答案是A。指上文提到的事多用that,it指时间。

(3) 电话用语中的指示代词:在电话用语中指自己用this,指对方用that,不用I或you。如:

“Who’s that?” “This is Mary speaking.”“你是哪位?”“我是玛丽。”

(4) 指示代词受定语从句的修饰:指示代词that, those后可接定语从句,一般说来,that后接which引导的定语从句,those后接who引导的定语从句。如:

They say the only real knowledge is that which can be measured. 据说唯一真实的知识是可以检验的知识。

Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in. 只有那些预先订票的人可以进去。

(5) 指示代词用作替代词:that, those有时可用作替代词,用以替代前面提到过的人或事物。如:

My seat is next to that of the mayor. 我的座位在市长座位旁边。

Waves of red light are about twice as long as those of blue light. 红色光线的波长约为蓝色波长的两倍。

5. 疑问代词的语法要点

(1) 疑问代词的基本用法:疑问代词有what, which, who, whom, whose等,主要用于引出特殊疑问句。what除可用来询问人的身份外,一般指物;which可指人也可指物;who, whom, whose一般指人。

(2) what与which的区别:一般说来,没有一定的范围时,用what,其意为“什么”;有一定范围时,用which,其意为“(其中的)哪一个”。如:

What is the best book you’ve ever read? 你曾经读过的最好的书是哪本?

Which of these books is the best? 这些书哪一本最好?

(3) 疑问代词的综合考查:在高考英语中有时命题者会将疑问代词与其他知识点进行综合考查,如将疑问代词与强调句结合起来考查。如:

— _____ that he manage to get the information?

—Oh, a friend of his helped him.

A. Where was it B. What was it C. How was it D. Why was it

解析:答案选C。从四个选项来看,似乎只是考查疑问词where, what, how, why的辨析与选择,其实它还结合了强调句的知识进行考查,根据答语中的 a friend of his helped him可知,问句问的是方式,故选how was it。

6. 替代词it, that, (the) one(s), those的用法

(1) it和that的用法:两者都可替代“the+单数名词(可数或不可数)”,均表特指,但it指前面提到的“同一”事物,而that是指前面提到的“同类”事物。如:

①The Parkers bought a new house but _____will need a lot of work before they can move in.

A. they B. it C. one D. which

解析:答案选B。it替代“the + house”,指的就是前面提到的the Parkers所买的那座新房子。

②Few pleasures can equal _____ of a cool drink on a hot day.

A. some B. any C. that D. those

解析:答案选C。that替代the pleasure,指与前面提到的同属“快乐的事”。

(2)替代词one的用法:one用以替代“a+单数可数名词”,表示泛指。特指的the one相当于that;the one复数形式the ones,在口语中也常用those代替;当后面有of短语时,一般用that或those,当有前置修饰语时,只能用one(s),如the red one。one(s), the one(s), those, that都是替代“同类”事物,其中只有that可替代不可数名词。如:

①We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made _____ from some wood we had.

A. it B. one C. himself D. another

解析:答案选B,one替代a cupboard。

②Mr Zhang gave the textbooks to all the pupils except _____who had already taken them.

A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others

解析:答案选A,后面的定语从句是特指,the ones替代the pupils。此处也可用those。

7. 不定代词some与any的用法

在通常情况下,some要用于肯定句,在否定句或疑问句中,一般用any代替。但是,这只是一般情况。在某些特殊情况下,some也可用于疑问句和否定句。

(1)some用于疑问句:一是用于可预料答语为“是”的问句中,二是用于表示请求或建议的疑问句。如:

Did some of you sleep on the floor? 你们有人睡在了地板上吗?

Would you like some more fruit? 你要不要再吃点水果?

(2)some用于否定句:Some用于否定句主要见于以下情形:

①用于部分否定的句子中。比较:

I do not like any of the films. 这些电影中我一部也不喜欢。

I don’t like some of the films. 这些电影中的某一些我不喜欢。

I don’t like some one of the films. 这些电影中某一部我不喜欢。

②用于否定句,但在否定范围之外。如:

I haven’t seen Tom for some years. 我有好几年没见到汤姆了。

Some of the students didn’t see the film. 其中有些学生没有看这部电影。

③用于否定句表示特别的强调。如:

It should be for all our children, not just some. 这应该适用于我们所有的儿童,而不仅仅是某些孩子。

④用于否定句介词without之后。如:

It’s risky to buy a car without some good advice. 不作些咨询就去买车是有风险的。

若在without后用any,则所表示的语气很强,含有“没有任何”“没有一点儿”之意。如:

We did the work without any difficulty. 我们干这工作没有任何困难。

8. few, a few 与 little, a little的用法

(1) few和a few的用法:其后要接可数名词的复数形式。few表示数量很少或几乎没有,强调“少”,含有否定意义;a few 表示数量虽然少但毕竟还有,强调“有”,含有肯定意义。比较:

It is very difficult, and few people understand it. 它很难,没几个人能懂。

It is very difficult, but a few people understand it. 他虽难,但是有些人懂。

(2) little 和 a little的用法:其后接不可数名词,其用法区别跟few和a few之间的区别相似。如:

Unfortunately, I had little money on me. 很不巧,我身上没带什么钱。

Fortunately, I had a little money on me. 幸好我身上带着一点钱。

9. other, the other, another与others的用法

这些不定代词不仅在含义上有单复数之分,而且在用法上有泛指(无the)和特指(有the)之别。其用法区别可归纳如下:

(1) 指单数时的区别:若泛指用another,若特指用 the other。如:

Give me another (one). 另外给我一个。

Shut the other eye, please. 请把另一只眼睛也闭上。

(2) 指复数时的区别:若泛指用 other(后接复数名词),若特指用the other(后接复数名词)。如:

There are other ways of doing it. 做这事还有其他的办法。

Where have the other students gone? 其他学生都到哪里去了?

(3) others的用法:它永远表示复数意义(且其后不能再接名词)。其用法大致相当于“other+复数名词”,同样地 the others 大致相当于“the other+复数名词”。如:

Other people [Others] may not think that way. 别的人可能不这样想。

He is cleverer than the others [the other students] in her class. 他比班上其他学生聪明。

(4) another的用法:一般只能表单数,且其后接名词也只能接单数名词。但是若其后有数词或 few 修饰时,则也可接复数名词。如:

We need another few chairs. 我们还需要几把椅子。

In another two weeks it’ll be finished. 再过两个星期就可做完了。

10. 复合不定代词的用法

复合不定代词包括 something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone, nothing, nobody, no one, everything, everybody, everyone 等。它们在句中可用作主语、宾语或表语,但不能用作定语。something, someone 等和 anything, anyone等的区别与 some 和 any 的区别一样,前者一般用于肯定句,后者一般用于否定句、疑问句或条件句。具体使用时应注意以下几点:

(1)其定语修饰语的位置:复合不定代词受定语修饰时,定语应放在它们后面。如:

There is nothing wrong with the radio. 这收音机没有毛病。

Have you seen anyone [anybody] famous? 你见过名人吗?

(2)复合不定代词与指示代词:指人的复合不定代词若用作主语,其谓语动词一般用单数,相应的人称代词和物主代词也用单数 he, him, his (不一定指男性)。但在非正式文体中常用复数代词 they, them, their。如:

If anybody comes, ask him [them] to wait. 要是有人来,让他等着。

指事物的复合不定代词若用作主语,谓语动词只能用单数,相应的人称代词也只能用 it,而不用 they。如:

Everything is ready, isn’t it? 一切都准备好了,是吗?

(3)其后是否接of短语:anyone, everyone 等只能指人,不能指物,且其后一般不接of 短语。若是指物或后接 of 短语,可用 any one, every one (分开写)。如:

any one of the boys (books) 孩子们(书)当中的任何一个(本)

every one of the students (schools) 每一个学生(一所学校)

11. 表示两者或表示三者的不定代词

(1) 基本区别:用于指两者的不定代词主要有both, either, neither,用于指三者的不定代词主要有all, any, none, every。比较:

Both of my parents are doctors. 我的父母都是医生。

All of the students are interested in it. 所有的学生对此都很感兴趣。

He has two sons, neither of whom is rich. 他有两个儿子,都不富有。

He has three sons, none of whom is rich. 他有三个儿子,都不富有。

(2) each与every的细微区别:each 可用于两者、三者或三者以上,而 every 只用于三者或三者以上,因此用于两者时只能用 each,不能用 every。如不能说:There are trees on every side of the road.

(3) none与no one的细微区别:none可指人或物,一般要接表示范围的of短语,可回答how many / much;no one只能指人(=nobody),不能接of短语,可回答who。

(4) 关于not…any (either):不定代词any和either用于否定句时,只能放在否定词之后,不能放在否定词之前。如:

误:Any people can’t come in. (可改为:No one can come in.)

误:Either brother is clever. (可改为:Neither brother is clever.)

12.不定代词与部分否定

不定代词all, both, every等与not连用时构成部分否定;若要表示完全否定,则需换用 none, neither, no one等。比较:

All of the students like the book. 所有这些学生都喜欢这本书。

Not all of the students like the book. 并非所有这些学生都喜欢这本书。

None of the students like the book. 这些学生中没有一个喜欢这本书。

13. 关系代词的用法

主要的关系代词有 that, who, whom, whose, which, as 等。其中who, whom 只用于指人,which, as 只用于指事物,whose, that 既可于指人也可用于指物。关系代词在定语从句主要用于主语、宾语(可以省略)、表语或定语:

He is the man who [that] lives next door. 他就是就是住在隔壁的那个人。

How do you like the photo that [which] I took? 你觉得我拍的这张照片怎么样?

This is the same watch as I lost. 这块表跟我丢失的那块一样。

I want to find someone with whom I could discuss music. 我想找个能和我谈音乐的人。

She received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. 她收到了老板的邀请,这是她意想不到的。

14. 关系代词that与which的用法区别

两者都可指物,常可互换。其区别主要在于:

(1)通常要用which的场合:

①引导非限制性定语从句时,通常要用which。如:

She received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. 她收到了老板的邀请,这是她意想不到的。

②直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which。如:

The tool with which he is working is called a hammer. 他干活用的那个工具叫做锤子。

(2)通常多用that的场合:

①当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用that:

All [Everything] that can be done must be done. 凡能做的事都必须做。

但在现代英语中,在something, anything, everything等之后用which引导定语从句的现象也很普通。

②当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that。如:

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。

③当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that。如:

This is the best dictionary that I’ve ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

④当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that。如:

st1:country-region w:st="on">China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。

⑤当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that。如:

They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。

⑥当要避免重复时。如:

Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程?

15. 关系代词as与which的用法区别

引导非限制性定语从句时,有时两者可互换。如:

I live a long way from work, as [which] you know. 我住得离工作单位很远,这你是知道的。

(1)通常要用as的场合:

①当从句位于主句前面时,只用 as。如:

As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. 月球每月绕地球转一周,这是每个人都清楚的。

②用于such, as, the same后引导限制性定语从句时,只能用as。如:

I never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过他讲那样的故事。

This is the photo which shows my house. 这张照片拍的是我的住宅。

(2)两者的细微区别:

①as引导的非限制性定语从句应与主句在意义上和谐一致,which无此限制。如:

He went abroad, as [which] was expected. 他出国了,这是大家预料到的。

He went abroad, which was unexpected. 他出国了,这让大家感到很意外。(不用as)

②as引导非限制性定语从句时,先行词通常不能是主句中某个具体的词,而应是整个句子、整个短语或某个短语推断出来的概念,而which 则无此限制。如:

The river, which flows through London, is called the Thames. 这条流经伦敦的河叫泰晤士河。(不用as)

③当as引导非限制性定语从句作主语时,其谓语通常应是连系动词,而不宜是其他动词,而 which则无此限制。如:

She has married again, as [which] seemed natural. 她又结婚了,这似乎很自常。

She has married again, which delighted us. 她又结婚了,这使我们很高兴。(不用as)

 

【更多相关内容】

1、引导从句的what

2、英语指示代词学习要点归纳

3、指示代词用法小提示

4、which, what与who的用法区别

5、连接代词what的用法

6、疑问代词的语法要点

7、相互代词的用法及注意点

8、关系代词as与which的用法区别

9、one…the other还是one…another

10、指示代词的几点用法说明

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